Case Study – Ganges/Brahmaputra River Basin
Flooding is a significant problem in the Ganges and Brahmaputra river basin. They cause large scale problems in the low lying country of Bangladesh. There are both human and natural causes of flooding in this area.
Deforestation – Population increase in Nepal means there is a greater demand for food, fuel and building materials. As a result, deforestation has increased significantly. This reduces interception and increases run-off. This leads to soil erosion. River channels fill with soil, the capacity of the River Ganges and Brahmaputra is reduced and flooding occurs.
- Monsoon Rain
- Melting Snow
- Tectonic Activity – The Indian Plate is moving towards the Eurasian Plate. The land where they meet (Himalayas) is getting higher and steeper every year (fold mountains). As a result, the soil becomes loose and is susceptible to erosion. This causes more soil and silt in rivers. This leads to flooding in Bangladesh.