How did the temperate deciduous woodland get like this?
The rainfall is high, between 500-1,500 mm a year. The temperatures remain on average above 0°C even in the winter. The summer temperatures average between 25-20°C. The winter is cooler, encouraging the trees to shed their leaves.
The soil type is brown earth. This is fertile soil. In the autumn the leaves fall from the trees. The leaves decompose and help to give the soil its nutrients. Earthworms in the soil help to mix the nutrients, and blend the layers within the soil.
The tree roots are deep and so help to break up the rock below. This helps to give the soil more minerals. The trees take up the nutrients in the soil as they grow. However, more nutrients are put back in the soil when the autumn comes.