recognise and describe distributions and patterns of both human and physical features
maps based on global and other scales may be used and students may be asked to identify and describe significant features of the physical and human landscape on them, eg population distribution, population movements, transport networks, settlement layout, relief and drainage
analyse the inter-relationship between physical and human factors on maps and establish associations between observed patterns on thematic maps.
Ordnance Survey maps:
use and interpret OS maps at a range of scales, including 1:50 000 and 1:25 000 and other maps appropriate to the topic
use and understand scale, distance and direction – measure straight and curved line distances using a variety of scales
use and understand gradient, contour and spot height
numerical and statistical information
identify basic landscape features and describe their characteristics from map evidence
identify major relief features on maps and relate cross-sectional drawings to relief features
draw inferences about the physical and human landscape by interpretation of map evidence, including patterns of relief, drainage, settlement, communication and land-use
interpret cross sections and transects of physical and human landscapes
describe the physical features as they are shown on large scale maps of two of the following landscapes – coastlines, fluvial and glacial landscapes
infer human activity from map evidence, including tourism.
Maps in association with photographs:
be able to compare maps
sketch maps: draw, label, understand and interpret
photographs: use and interpret ground, aerial and satellite photographs
describe human and physical landscapes (landforms, natural vegetation, land-use and settlement) and geographical phenomena from photographs
draw sketches from photographs
label and annotate diagrams, maps, graphs, sketches and photographs.
Graphical skills to:
select and construct appropriate graphs and charts to present data, using appropriate scales – line charts, bar charts, pie charts, pictograms, histograms with equal class intervals, divided bar, scattergraphs, and population pyramids
suggest an appropriate form of graphical representation for the data provided
complete a variety of graphs and maps – choropleth, isoline, dot maps, desire lines, proportional symbols and flow lines
use and understand gradient, contour and value on isoline maps
plot information on graphs when axes and scales are provided
interpret and extract information from different types of maps, graphs and charts, including population pyramids, choropleth maps, flow-line maps, dispersion graphs
Numerical skills to:
demonstrate an understanding of number, area and scales, and the quantitative relationships between units
design fieldwork data collection sheets and collect data with an understanding of accuracy, sample size and procedures, control groups and reliability
understand and correctly use proportion and ratio, magnitude and frequency
draw informed conclusions from numerical data.
Statistical skills to:
use appropriate measures of central tendency, spread and cumulative frequency (median, mean, range, quartiles and inter-quartile range, mode and modal class)
calculate percentage increase or decrease and understand the use of percentiles
describe relationships in bivariate data: sketch trend lines through scatter plots, draw estimated lines of best fit, make predictions, interpolate and extrapolate trends
be able to identify weaknesses in selective statistical presentation of data.
Use of qualitative and quantitative data
Use of qualitative and quantitative data from both primary and secondary sources to obtain, illustrate, communicate, interpret, analyse and evaluate geographical information.
Examples of types of data:
geo-spatial data presented in a geographical information system (GIS) framework
written and digital sources
visual and graphical sources
numerical and statistical information.
Formulate enquiry and argument
Students should demonstrate the ability to:
identify questions and sequences of enquiry
write descriptively, analytically and critically
communicate their ideas effectively
develop an extended written argument
draw well-evidenced and informed conclusions about geographical questions and issues.
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