Natural hazards pose major risks to people and property:
Earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are the result of physical processes:
The effects of, and responses to, a tectonic hazard vary between areas of contrasting levels of wealth:
Management can reduce the effects of a tectonic hazard:
Global atmospheric circulation helps to determine patterns of weather and climate:
Tropical storms (hurricanes, cyclones, typhoons) develop as a result of particular physical conditions:
Tropical storms have significant effects on people and the environment:
The UK is affected by a number of weather hazards:
Extreme weather events in the UK have impacts on human activity:
An example of a recent extreme weather event in the UK to illustrate:
• social, economic and environmental impacts
• how management strategies can reduce risk.
Evidence that weather is becoming more extreme in the UK.
Climate change is the result of natural and human factors, and has a range of effects:
Evidence for climate change from the beginning of the Quaternary period to the present day.
Possible causes of climate change:
• natural factors – orbital changes, volcanic activity and solar output
• human factors – use of fossil fuels, agriculture and deforestation.
Overview of the effects of climate change on people and the environment.
Managing climate change involves both mitigation (reducing causes) and adaptation (responding to change):
Managing climate change:
• mitigation – alternative energy production, carbon capture, planting trees, international agreements
• adaptation – change in agricultural systems, managing water supply, reducing risk from rising sea levels.