Mitigation means to present or reduce the effects of something happening. Climate change mitigation strategies include:
Renewable energy – using renewable energy such as wind, solar or tidal energy can reduce our reliance on fossil fuels such as coal, oil and natural gas. Therefore, this will reduce carbon dioxide emissions.
Types of renewable energy
Carbon capture – this involves the removal of greenhouse gases from waste gas from power stations then storing it underground in old coal mines or gas fields. This reduces atmospheric emissions.
Afforestation – planting trees means more carbon dioxide will be absorbed from the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
Planting trees (afforestation)
International agreements – these are agreements between countries to pledge to reduce the amount of greenhouses gas emissions. An example of this is the Kyoto Protocol which became international law in 2005. the countries that signed up agreed to reduce carbon emissions by 5%. However, this ended in 2012 and its impact has been small. The US refused to sign up and large developing countries such as India and China were not required to make reductions.
Climate Change Adaptation strategies
Adaptation strategies respond to climate change by reducing its negative effects. Climate change adaptation strategies include:
Agriculture – farmers will no longer be able to grow some crops so will need to adapt and grow crops that suit the changing climate. An example of this is that oranges and grapes could soon become common in the UK.
Due to water shortages in some areas water transfer schemes will be developed. This means water will be transferred from areas of water surplus to water deficit.
Reducing risk from sea level rise – sea defences may be constructed to protect areas at risk of erosion by sea level rise.
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