There are a number of reasons for protecting the coast. Some areas of coastline tend to be very heavily populated. This is particularly the case of large tourist resorts. Also, they are areas of high economic value due to tourism. Coastlines are particularly prone to flooding. Where industry is established, in ports for example, the land is of high economic importance due to the jobs created in these areas. Finally, they are fragile ecosystems which take a long time to recover if they are destroyed.
Techniques for managing the physical processes of coastal erosion, transportation and deposition can be divided into hard engineering options (such as building sea walls and groynes) and soft engineering options (such as beach nourishment and managed retreat).
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