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Beaches beyond the defences (downdrift) are starved of beach material due to it being trapped behind the terminal (last) groyne.
Find out more about hard engineering at the coast.
Hard engineering involves building artificial structures which try to control natural processes.
Cheap and efficient at reducing energy in waves approaching the coast.
Groynes, rock armour, sea walls, revetments, gabions or breakwater.
Gabions are coastal defences that consist of rocks and boulders encased in a wired mesh. They absorb the energy from waves.
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