Weathering and mass movement in river valleys
Weathering in river valleys
Weathering is the break down of rock in situ. Weathering occurs along river valley and channel sides. Mechanical, biological and chemical weathering can all occur in river landscapes.
Mechanical weathering is the break down of rock without any changes in its chemical composition. An example of mechanical weathering is freeze-thaw. Freeze-thaw weathering occurs when the temperature alternates above and below freezing.
Chemical weathering involves the breakdown of rock caused by changes in its chemical composition. Some rocks are made up of minerals that dissolve in water. Rock salt is an example of this. When it rains minerals are dissolved and washed away breaking down the rock. This is known as dissolution weathering.
Carbonation weathering is another form of chemical weathering. The process involves slightly acidic rainwater reacting with minerals, causing them to dissolve, breaking the rock down.
Biological weathering involves rock being broken down by living things. An example of this involves plant roots breaking down rocks by growing in cracks, splitting them apart. The image below illustrates this.
Mass movement in river valleys
Mass movement is the down-slope movement of material under gravity. Slides and slumps are examples of mass movement that can occur in river landscapes. In slides, material moves in a straight line, whereas slumping moves with rotation.
When a river erodes the base of a valley side it can cause undercutting. The material above is no longer supported leading to the increased risk of mass movement occurring.
The additional weight of saturated soil and water lubricating the valley sides can increase the likelihood of mass movement occurring.
Mass movement is also more likely to occur when weathering processes are active in a river valley.
A mass movement can contribute additional material to a river’s load, increasing erosion along the course of the river and deposition in the lower stages.