There are 5 factors which affect climate. These are summarised below:
Temperature range increases with distance from the equator. Also, temperatures decrease as you move away from the equator. This is because the suns rays are dispersed over a larger area of land as you move away from the equator. This is due to the curved surface of the Earth. In addition, polar regions are colder because the suns rays have further to travel compared to place on the equator.
Temperatures decrease with height. The air is less dense and cannot hold heat as easily.
If winds are warm – they have been blown from a hot area – they will raise temperatures. If winds have been blown from cold areas they will lower temperatures.
Distance from the sea (continentality)
Land heats and cools faster than the sea. Therefore coastal areas have a lower temperature range than those areas inland. On the coast winters are mild and summers are cool. In inland areas, temperatures are high in the summer and cold in the winter.
Slopes facing the sun are warmer than those that are not. Thus south-facing slopes in the northern hemisphere are usually warm. However, slopes facing north in the southern hemisphere are warmest.