Coastal conflicts between different users
Edexcel iGCSE > Coastal Environments > Coastal conflicts between different users
Coastal conflicts between different users
The coastal zones, due to their natural beauty and economic value, often host a variety of users, including locals, tourists, businesses, and conservationists. Each user group has distinct perspectives and requirements that can lead to conflicts, particularly in the context of coastal management.
Environmentalists: Environmentalists work to conserve coastal areas’ natural habitats and biodiversity. They often support strict regulations on development, fishing, and other activities that can harm the environment. This stance can lead to conflicts with industries, local residents, and tourists who want more liberal use of the coastal resources.
Farmers: Farmers utilise coastal land for crops and livestock. Their farming practices can impact the coast through soil erosion, sedimentation, and nutrient runoff, which may harm marine habitats. These activities might conflict with other users who rely on a healthy marine environment. Typically, farmers are keen to protect their income and often oppose coastal management schemes in highly populated areas due to the potential for increased rates of erosion downdrift of the defences as rates of coastal erosion can be accelerated where the natural processes such as longshore drift is restricted due to the construction of groynes, leading to increased rates of erosion on their land.
Fishers: Fishers depend on the coastal waters for their livelihoods. Overfishing and destructive fishing practices can deplete fish stocks and harm marine ecosystems. This could conflict with environmentalists concerned about marine conservation and other users who rely on a healthy marine environment.
Industrialists: Industrialists often use coastal zones for shipping, manufacturing, and energy production. These activities can lead to pollution, habitat destruction, and aesthetic degradation, sparking conflict with residents, tourists, and environmentalists.
Local Residents: Residents typically desire a serene and safe living environment. Their perspective on coastal management may lean towards preserving the natural state of the coast, resisting any extensive industrial or tourism-related developments that could disrupt their peace or alter the coast’s aesthetics. However, those living close to the coastline may be more likely to want to protect the shoreline from erosion to reduce the risk of property loss.
Tourists: Tourists are drawn to the coast for its unique recreational opportunities, biodiversity, and scenic beauty. Their views on coastal management may focus on maintaining access to these attractions. However, tourism can lead to overcrowding, littering, and increased pressure on local resources. This could create conflicts with locals and environmentalists advocating for the conservation and sustainable use of coastal resources. They could conflict with any restrictions imposed for conservation purposes or industrial activities that mar the natural beauty.
Business Interests: Businesses, such as the tourism industry, fishing industry, or shipping companies, utilise the coast for their economic activities. Their management perspective might focus on maximising economic gain, potentially at the expense of the natural environment. This could lead to conflicts with conservationists and residents concerned about noise, pollution, or resource depletion.
Conservation Groups: These organizations aim to preserve the natural habitats and biodiversity of the coastal areas. Their perspective on coastal management is often centred on environmental preservation, which can cause conflict with industries seeking to exploit coastal resources, tourists seeking unrestricted access, or residents impacting local ecosystems.
The conflicts arising from these differing uses and views can lead to social tension, inequitable resource allocation, and environmental degradation. Consequently, effective coastal management strategies are essential. They should aim to balance economic development with environmental conservation, manage resource use to ensure sustainability and involve all stakeholders in decision-making processes. This integrated approach can help to reduce conflicts and promote harmony among the various coastal users.
Management of Studland Beach
Studland Beach, located in Dorset, UK, is a prime example of a coastal area facing various user conflicts and management challenges. This area is popular among tourists, locals, wildlife enthusiasts, and conservationists due to its sandy beaches, stunning landscapes, and rich biodiversity. It’s also a site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) and part of a nature reserve managed by the National Trust.
Conflicts at Studland Beach
Conflicts arise from the diverse interests and impacts of different user groups. Tourists, while boosting the local economy, often contribute to littering, trampling of vegetation, and disturbance to wildlife. Certain areas of the beach have also been controversially used for naturism, causing friction with other beach-goers. Water sports like jet-skiing are a source of noise pollution and can disturb marine wildlife, particularly the seahorse population in Studland Bay. These conflicts pose significant challenges to managing the area for the benefit of all users while preserving its natural value.
Impact of Human Use
Human activities have had considerable impacts on Studland Beach’s environment. For instance, heavy footfall during peak tourist season causes soil erosion and disrupts local habitats. Vehicle use and parking, especially off-road parking, have similar effects and can damage sand dunes. The influx of visitors increases litter, further impacting the natural environment and threatening local wildlife.
Management of Studland Beach:
The National Trust, responsible for managing Studland Beach, has implemented several measures to mitigate these impacts and resolve conflicts. These include:
- Restricting Vehicle Access: Parking has been limited to designated areas to reduce damage to the dunes and vegetation.
- Provision of Facilities: Facilities like toilets, bins, and pathways have been improved to accommodate visitors and reduce littering and trampling of vegetation.
- Education and Awareness: Signage has been installed to inform visitors about sensitive areas, and awareness campaigns have been run to encourage respectful and responsible behaviour.
- Zoning: Certain areas have been zoned for activities like naturism and water sports to minimize conflicts between users.
- Conservation Work: Active measures are taken to preserve and restore natural habitats, such as removing invasive plant species and protecting seahorse breeding grounds.
These initiatives aim to strike a balance between enabling the recreational use of Studland Beach and protecting its unique environment and biodiversity for future generations.