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As a waterfall retreats, it leaves behind the steep-sided valley which is called a gorge. Every time the overhanging rock breaks off the gorge retreats and grows longer.
Find out more about the landforms of erosion in the upper course of a river.
Find out more about meanders and oxbow lakes.
Rapids are fast flowing, turbulent sections of the river where the bed has a relatively steep gradient. They are found in the upper course of the river.
Formation of a waterfall
Interlocking spurs are fingers of land that jut out into the river valley that streams and rivers are forced to flow around in the upper course.
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