What is a wave?
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A wave is a disturbance on the surface of the sea or ocean, in the form of a moving ridge or swell.

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What is a wave?
Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
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Weak swash, strong backwash.

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Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
What 3 factors affect the size of waves?
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Fetch, wind speed and wind duration.

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What 3 factors affect the size of waves?
What word describes the movement of a wave up a beach?
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Swash

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What word describes the movement of a wave up a beach?
Identify the type of wave that builds beaches.
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Constructive wave

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Identify the type of wave that builds beaches.

Give an outline of what abrasion involves.
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Abrasion occurs as breaking waves, concentrated between the high and low watermarks, which contain sand and larger fragments wear away the base of a cliff or headland. It is commonly known as the sandpaper effect. This process is particularly common in high-energy storm conditions.

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Give an outline of what abrasion involves.
What is attrition?
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Attrition is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.

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What is attrition?
What is coastal erosion?
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Coastal erosion is the wearing away of the land by the sea.

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What is coastal erosion?
Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
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Corrasion is when destructive waves pick up beach material (e.g. pebbles) and hurl them at the base of a cliff. Over time this can loosen cliff material forming a wave-cut notch.

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Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
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Waves hitting the base of a cliff causes leads to air compression in cracks, joints and folds in bedding planes, causing repeated changes in air pressure. As air rushes out of the crack when the wave retreats, it leads to an explosive effect as pressure is released. This process is supported further by the weakening effect of weathering. The material breaks off cliffs, sometimes in huge chunks. This process is known as hydraulic action.

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Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
Describe carbonation weathering.
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When rainwater hits rock it decomposes it or eats it away. This is known as carbonation. This occurs when slightly acidic (carbonic) rain or seawater comes into contact with sedimentary rock, such as limestone or chalk, it causes it to dissolve. A chemical reaction occurs between the acidic water and the calcium carbonate and forms calcium bicarbonate. This is soluble and is carried away in solution. Carbonation weathering occurs in warm, wet conditions.

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Describe carbonation weathering.
What is chemical weathering?
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Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock through changing its chemical composition.

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What is chemical weathering?
What is salt weathering?
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Salt weathering is when salt spray from the sea gets into a crack in a rock. It may evaporate and crystallise, putting pressure on the surrounding rock and weakening the structure.

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What is salt weathering?
What is weathering?
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Weathering is the breakdown of rock in situ by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity.

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What is weathering?
Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
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Recently weathered rock can be seen at the foot of chalk and limestone cliffs and is easily identified because it is angular.

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Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.
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Solution, suspension, saltation and traction.

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Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.
Why does coastal deposition occur?
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Wave energy reduces leading to material being deposited.

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Why does coastal deposition occur?
Give three conditions that lead to coastal deposition happening.
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Any three from:

  • Waves enter an area of shallow water/waves enter a sheltered area, eg a cove or bay
  • There is little wind
  • A river or estuary flows into the sea reducing wave energy
  • There is a good supply of material and the amount of material being transported is greater than the wave energy can transport.

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Give three conditions that lead to coastal deposition happening.
What is longshore drift also known as?
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Littoral drift

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What is longshore drift also known as?
What is the zig-zag movement of material along the shore by wave action called?
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Longshore drift

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What is the zig-zag movement of material along the shore by wave action called?