Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
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Weak swash, strong backwash.

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Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
What causes waves?
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Waves are caused by the transfer of energy from the wind to the sea due to the friction of the wind on the water’s surface.

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What causes waves?
What 3 factors affect the size of waves?
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Fetch, wind speed and wind duration.

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What 3 factors affect the size of waves?
What is the fetch of a wave?
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The distance a wave has travelled.

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What is the fetch of a wave?
Identify the type of waves shown below.

Destructive Waves

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Destructive waves

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Identify the type of waves shown below.

What is coastal erosion?
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Coastal erosion is the wearing away of the land by the sea.

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What is coastal erosion?
Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
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Waves hitting the base of a cliff causes leads to air compression in cracks, joints and folds in bedding planes, causing repeated changes in air pressure. As air rushes out of the crack when the wave retreats, it leads to an explosive effect as pressure is released. This process is supported further by the weakening effect of weathering. The material breaks off cliffs, sometimes in huge chunks. This process is known as hydraulic action.

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Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
What is corrosion/solution?
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Corrosion/solution is when certain types of cliff erode as a result of weak acids in the sea.

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What is corrosion/solution?
What is attrition?
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Attrition is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.

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What is attrition?
Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
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Corrasion is when destructive waves pick up beach material (e.g. pebbles) and hurl them at the base of a cliff. Over time this can loosen cliff material forming a wave-cut notch.

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Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
Describe carbonation weathering.
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When rainwater hits rock it decomposes it or eats it away. This is known as carbonation. This occurs when slightly acidic (carbonic) rain or seawater comes into contact with sedimentary rock, such as limestone or chalk, it causes it to dissolve. A chemical reaction occurs between the acidic water and the calcium carbonate and forms calcium bicarbonate. This is soluble and is carried away in solution. Carbonation weathering occurs in warm, wet conditions.

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Describe carbonation weathering.
What is chemical weathering?
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Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock through changing its chemical composition.

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What is chemical weathering?
What is weathering?
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Weathering is the breakdown of rock in situ by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity.

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What is weathering?
Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
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Recently weathered rock can be seen at the foot of chalk and limestone cliffs and is easily identified because it is angular.

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Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
What is salt weathering?
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Salt weathering is when salt spray from the sea gets into a crack in a rock. It may evaporate and crystallise, putting pressure on the surrounding rock and weakening the structure.

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What is salt weathering?
What is suspension?
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Beach material is suspended and carried by the waves.

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What is suspension?
What is solution?
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Material is dissolved and carried by the water.

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What is solution?
Describe how longshore drift transports material.
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Longshore drift happens when waves approach the beach at an angle. The swash (waves moving up the beach) carries material up and along the beach. The backwash (waves moving back down the beach) carries material back down the beach at right angles. This is the result of gravity. This process slowly moves material along the beach and provides a link between erosion and deposition. The material is transported through suspension, traction, solution and saltation. Longshore drift provides a link between erosion, transportation and deposition.

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Describe how longshore drift transports material.
What is traction?
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Traction – large pebbles and boulders are rolled along the seafloor.

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What is traction?
Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.
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Solution, suspension, saltation and traction.

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Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.