Identify the type of waves shown below.

Destructive Waves

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Destructive waves

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Identify the type of waves shown below.
Identify the type of wave that builds beaches.
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Constructive wave

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Identify the type of wave that builds beaches.
Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
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Weak swash, strong backwash.

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Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
Identify the two types of wave.
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Constructive and destructive waves.

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Identify the two types of wave.
What word describes the movement of a wave up a beach?
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Swash

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What word describes the movement of a wave up a beach?

Identify the main processes of coastal erosion.
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Corrasion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion/solution.

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Identify the main processes of coastal erosion.
What is corrosion/solution?
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Corrosion/solution is when certain types of cliff erode as a result of weak acids in the sea.

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What is corrosion/solution?
Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
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Corrasion is when destructive waves pick up beach material (e.g. pebbles) and hurl them at the base of a cliff. Over time this can loosen cliff material forming a wave-cut notch.

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Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
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Waves hitting the base of a cliff causes leads to air compression in cracks, joints and folds in bedding planes, causing repeated changes in air pressure. As air rushes out of the crack when the wave retreats, it leads to an explosive effect as pressure is released. This process is supported further by the weakening effect of weathering. The material breaks off cliffs, sometimes in huge chunks. This process is known as hydraulic action.

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Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
What is coastal erosion?
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The wearing away of land by the sea.

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What is coastal erosion?
Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
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Freeze-thaw weathering occurs when rocks are porous (contain holes) or permeable (allow water to pass through). Water enters the rock and freezes. The ice expands by around 9%. This causes pressure on the rock until it cracks. Repeated freeze-thaw can cause the rock to break up.

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Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
What is chemical weathering?
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Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock through changing its chemical composition.

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What is chemical weathering?
What is mechanical weathering?
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Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical structure (composition).

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What is mechanical weathering?
What is salt weathering?
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Salt weathering is when salt spray from the sea gets into a crack in a rock. It may evaporate and crystallise, putting pressure on the surrounding rock and weakening the structure.

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What is salt weathering?
Describe carbonation weathering.
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When rainwater hits rock it decomposes it or eats it away. This is known as carbonation. This occurs when slightly acidic (carbonic) rain or seawater comes into contact with sedimentary rock, such as limestone or chalk, it causes it to dissolve. A chemical reaction occurs between the acidic water and the calcium carbonate and forms calcium bicarbonate. This is soluble and is carried away in solution. Carbonation weathering occurs in warm, wet conditions.

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Describe carbonation weathering.
Why does coastal deposition occur?
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Wave energy reduces leading to material being deposited.

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Why does coastal deposition occur?
What is the zig-zag movement of material along the shore by wave action called?
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Longshore drift

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What is the zig-zag movement of material along the shore by wave action called?
What is longshore drift also known as?
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Littoral drift

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What is longshore drift also known as?
What is solution?
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Material is dissolved and carried by the water.

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What is solution?
What is coastal deposition?
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Coastal transportation involves material being transported by the sea being deposited or dropped.

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What is coastal deposition?