What 3 factors affect the size of waves?
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Fetch, wind speed and wind duration.

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What 3 factors affect the size of waves?
Identify the two types of wave.
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Constructive and destructive waves.

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Identify the two types of wave.
Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
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Weak swash, strong backwash.

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Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
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Constructive waves

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Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
What is a wave?
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A wave is a disturbance on the surface of the sea or ocean, in the form of a moving ridge or swell.

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What is a wave?

What is coastal erosion?
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The wearing away of land by the sea.

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What is coastal erosion?
Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
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Waves hitting the base of a cliff causes leads to air compression in cracks, joints and folds in bedding planes, causing repeated changes in air pressure. As air rushes out of the crack when the wave retreats, it leads to an explosive effect as pressure is released. This process is supported further by the weakening effect of weathering. The material breaks off cliffs, sometimes in huge chunks. This process is known as hydraulic action.

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Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
What is attrition?
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Attrition is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.

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What is attrition?
Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
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Corrasion is when destructive waves pick up beach material (e.g. pebbles) and hurl them at the base of a cliff. Over time this can loosen cliff material forming a wave-cut notch.

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Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
What is corrosion/solution?
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Corrosion/solution is when certain types of cliff erode as a result of weak acids in the sea.

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What is corrosion/solution?
Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
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Recently weathered rock can be seen at the foot of chalk and limestone cliffs and is easily identified because it is angular.

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Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
Describe carbonation weathering.
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When rainwater hits rock it decomposes it or eats it away. This is known as carbonation. This occurs when slightly acidic (carbonic) rain or seawater comes into contact with sedimentary rock, such as limestone or chalk, it causes it to dissolve. A chemical reaction occurs between the acidic water and the calcium carbonate and forms calcium bicarbonate. This is soluble and is carried away in solution. Carbonation weathering occurs in warm, wet conditions.

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Describe carbonation weathering.
What is weathering?
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Weathering is the breakdown of rock in situ by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity.

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What is weathering?
What is chemical weathering?
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Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock through changing its chemical composition.

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What is chemical weathering?
Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
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Freeze-thaw weathering occurs when rocks are porous (contain holes) or permeable (allow water to pass through). Water enters the rock and freezes. The ice expands by around 9%. This causes pressure on the rock until it cracks. Repeated freeze-thaw can cause the rock to break up.

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Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
What is the zig-zag movement of material along the shore by wave action called?
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Longshore drift

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What is the zig-zag movement of material along the shore by wave action called?
What is suspension?
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Beach material is suspended and carried by the waves.

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What is suspension?
Give three conditions that lead to coastal deposition happening.
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Any three from:

  • Waves enter an area of shallow water/waves enter a sheltered area, eg a cove or bay
  • There is little wind
  • A river or estuary flows into the sea reducing wave energy
  • There is a good supply of material and the amount of material being transported is greater than the wave energy can transport.

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Give three conditions that lead to coastal deposition happening.
What is solution?
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Material is dissolved and carried by the water.

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What is solution?
Describe how longshore drift transports material.
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Longshore drift happens when waves approach the beach at an angle. The swash (waves moving up the beach) carries material up and along the beach. The backwash (waves moving back down the beach) carries material back down the beach at right angles. This is the result of gravity. This process slowly moves material along the beach and provides a link between erosion and deposition. The material is transported through suspension, traction, solution and saltation. Longshore drift provides a link between erosion, transportation and deposition.

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Describe how longshore drift transports material.