What word describes the movement of a wave down a beach?
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Backwash

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What word describes the movement of a wave down a beach?
What causes waves?
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Waves are caused by the transfer of energy from the wind to the sea due to the friction of the wind on the water’s surface.

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What causes waves?
What is the fetch of a wave?
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The distance a wave has travelled.

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What is the fetch of a wave?
Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
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Constructive waves

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Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
Identify the two types of wave.
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Constructive and destructive waves.

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Identify the two types of wave.

What is coastal erosion?
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Coastal erosion is the wearing away of the land by the sea.

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What is coastal erosion?
What is coastal erosion?
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The wearing away of land by the sea.

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What is coastal erosion?
Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
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Waves hitting the base of a cliff causes leads to air compression in cracks, joints and folds in bedding planes, causing repeated changes in air pressure. As air rushes out of the crack when the wave retreats, it leads to an explosive effect as pressure is released. This process is supported further by the weakening effect of weathering. The material breaks off cliffs, sometimes in huge chunks. This process is known as hydraulic action.

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Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
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Corrasion is when destructive waves pick up beach material (e.g. pebbles) and hurl them at the base of a cliff. Over time this can loosen cliff material forming a wave-cut notch.

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Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
What is corrosion/solution?
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Corrosion/solution is when certain types of cliff erode as a result of weak acids in the sea.

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What is corrosion/solution?
What is chemical weathering?
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Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock through changing its chemical composition.

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What is chemical weathering?
What is mechanical weathering?
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Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical structure (composition).

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What is mechanical weathering?
What is weathering?
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Weathering is the breakdown of rock in situ by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity.

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What is weathering?
What is salt weathering?
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Salt weathering is when salt spray from the sea gets into a crack in a rock. It may evaporate and crystallise, putting pressure on the surrounding rock and weakening the structure.

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What is salt weathering?
Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
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Recently weathered rock can be seen at the foot of chalk and limestone cliffs and is easily identified because it is angular.

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Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.
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Solution, suspension, saltation and traction.

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Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.
Describe how longshore drift transports material.
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Longshore drift happens when waves approach the beach at an angle. The swash (waves moving up the beach) carries material up and along the beach. The backwash (waves moving back down the beach) carries material back down the beach at right angles. This is the result of gravity. This process slowly moves material along the beach and provides a link between erosion and deposition. The material is transported through suspension, traction, solution and saltation. Longshore drift provides a link between erosion, transportation and deposition.

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Describe how longshore drift transports material.
What is solution?
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Material is dissolved and carried by the water.

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What is solution?
What is coastal transportation?
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The movement of sediment and beach material through wave action.

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What is coastal transportation?
What is saltation?
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Beach material is bounced along the seafloor.

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What is saltation?