What word describes the movement of a wave up a beach?
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Swash

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What word describes the movement of a wave up a beach?
Identify the type of waves shown below.

Destructive Waves

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Destructive waves

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Identify the type of waves shown below.
Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
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Constructive waves

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Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
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Weak swash, strong backwash.

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Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
What 3 factors affect the size of waves?
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Fetch, wind speed and wind duration.

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What 3 factors affect the size of waves?

Give an outline of what abrasion involves.
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Abrasion occurs as breaking waves, concentrated between the high and low watermarks, which contain sand and larger fragments wear away the base of a cliff or headland. It is commonly known as the sandpaper effect. This process is particularly common in high-energy storm conditions.

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Give an outline of what abrasion involves.
What is coastal erosion?
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Coastal erosion is the wearing away of the land by the sea.

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What is coastal erosion?
Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
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Corrasion is when destructive waves pick up beach material (e.g. pebbles) and hurl them at the base of a cliff. Over time this can loosen cliff material forming a wave-cut notch.

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Give an outline of what corrasion involves.
Identify the main processes of coastal erosion.
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Corrasion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion/solution.

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Identify the main processes of coastal erosion.
What is attrition?
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Attrition is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.

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What is attrition?
Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
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Recently weathered rock can be seen at the foot of chalk and limestone cliffs and is easily identified because it is angular.

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Describe the characteristics of rock that has recently gone through freeze-thaw.
What is chemical weathering?
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Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock through changing its chemical composition.

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What is chemical weathering?
What is salt weathering?
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Salt weathering is when salt spray from the sea gets into a crack in a rock. It may evaporate and crystallise, putting pressure on the surrounding rock and weakening the structure.

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What is salt weathering?
What is weathering?
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Weathering is the breakdown of rock in situ by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity.

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What is weathering?
Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
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Freeze-thaw weathering occurs when rocks are porous (contain holes) or permeable (allow water to pass through). Water enters the rock and freezes. The ice expands by around 9%. This causes pressure on the rock until it cracks. Repeated freeze-thaw can cause the rock to break up.

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Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
What is solution?
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Material is dissolved and carried by the water.

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What is solution?
Describe how longshore drift transports material.
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Longshore drift happens when waves approach the beach at an angle. The swash (waves moving up the beach) carries material up and along the beach. The backwash (waves moving back down the beach) carries material back down the beach at right angles. This is the result of gravity. This process slowly moves material along the beach and provides a link between erosion and deposition. The material is transported through suspension, traction, solution and saltation. Longshore drift provides a link between erosion, transportation and deposition.

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Describe how longshore drift transports material.
What is coastal transportation?
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The movement of sediment and beach material through wave action.

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What is coastal transportation?
What is saltation?
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Beach material is bounced along the seafloor.

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What is saltation?
What is suspension?
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Beach material is suspended and carried by the waves.

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What is suspension?