What causes waves?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Waves are caused by the transfer of energy from the wind to the sea due to the friction of the wind on the water’s surface.

Find out more about waves.

What causes waves?
Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Constructive waves

Find out more about constructive waves.

Which type of wave has a strong swash and a weak backwash?
Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Weak swash, strong backwash.

Find out more about destructive waves.

Describe the swash and backwash of a destructive wave.
What is the fetch of a wave?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

The distance a wave has travelled.

Find out more about waves.

What is the fetch of a wave?
What word describes the movement of a wave down a beach?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Backwash

Find out more about waves.

What word describes the movement of a wave down a beach?

Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Waves hitting the base of a cliff causes leads to air compression in cracks, joints and folds in bedding planes, causing repeated changes in air pressure. As air rushes out of the crack when the wave retreats, it leads to an explosive effect as pressure is released. This process is supported further by the weakening effect of weathering. The material breaks off cliffs, sometimes in huge chunks. This process is known as hydraulic action.

Find out more about coastal erosion.

Give an outline of the steps involved in hydraulic action.
What is attrition?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Attrition is when waves cause rocks and pebbles to bump into each other and break up.

Find out more about coastal erosion.

What is attrition?
Identify the main processes of coastal erosion.
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Corrasion, abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition and corrosion/solution.

Find out more about the processes of coastal erosion.

Identify the main processes of coastal erosion.
What is coastal erosion?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

The wearing away of land by the sea.

Find out more about coastal erosion.

What is coastal erosion?
Give an outline of what abrasion involves.
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Abrasion occurs as breaking waves, concentrated between the high and low watermarks, which contain sand and larger fragments wear away the base of a cliff or headland. It is commonly known as the sandpaper effect. This process is particularly common in high-energy storm conditions.

Find out more about coastal erosion.

Give an outline of what abrasion involves.
Describe carbonation weathering.
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

When rainwater hits rock it decomposes it or eats it away. This is known as carbonation. This occurs when slightly acidic (carbonic) rain or seawater comes into contact with sedimentary rock, such as limestone or chalk, it causes it to dissolve. A chemical reaction occurs between the acidic water and the calcium carbonate and forms calcium bicarbonate. This is soluble and is carried away in solution. Carbonation weathering occurs in warm, wet conditions.

Find out more about weathering.

Describe carbonation weathering.
What is weathering?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Weathering is the breakdown of rock in situ by the action of rainwater, extremes of temperature, and biological activity.

Find out more about weathering.

What is weathering?
What is mechanical weathering?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Mechanical weathering is the breakdown of rock without changing its chemical structure (composition).

Find out more about weathering.

What is mechanical weathering?
What is chemical weathering?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Chemical weathering is the breakdown of rock through changing its chemical composition.

Find out more about weathering.

What is chemical weathering?
Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Freeze-thaw weathering occurs when rocks are porous (contain holes) or permeable (allow water to pass through). Water enters the rock and freezes. The ice expands by around 9%. This causes pressure on the rock until it cracks. Repeated freeze-thaw can cause the rock to break up.

Find out more about weathering.

Describe the processes of freeze-thaw weathering.
What is traction?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Traction – large pebbles and boulders are rolled along the seafloor.

Find out more about coastal transportation.

What is traction?
What is coastal transportation?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

The movement of sediment and beach material through wave action.

Find out more about coastal transportation.

What is coastal transportation?
Why does coastal deposition occur?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Wave energy reduces leading to material being deposited.

Find out more about coastal deposition.

Why does coastal deposition occur?
Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Solution, suspension, saltation and traction.

Find out more about coastal transportation.

Identify the 4 main processes of coastal transportation.
What is saltation?
Click to View the Answer
Click to View the Question

Beach material is bounced along the seafloor.

Find out more about coastal transportation.

What is saltation?