Temperate deciduous forest cross section
The image above shows a typical cross-section in the temperate deciduous woodland.
The trees have typically large broad leaves, such as oak, beech and elm. These form the canopy layer.
As some light can get through, the vegetation is layered. The sub-canopy layer grows in spaces between the taller trees, where there is more water when it rains and more light. Beneath the sub-canopy trees is a shrub layer.
The shrub layer contains species like hazel, ash and holly. Grass, bracken or bluebells can be found in the ground layer.