Causes of Flooding Flashcards

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Identify three ways humans can increase the risk of flooding in rural areas.
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Three ways humans can increase the risk of flooding in rural areas are:

  • Deforestation
  • Intensive farming, leaving fields bare in the winter
  • Overgrazing
  • Increased use of polytunnels

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Identify three ways humans can increase the risk of flooding in rural areas.
How can relief increase flood risk?
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Relief can increase flood risk because:

  • Steep sided slopes mean that it is hard for infiltration to occur which leads to greater surface run-off
  • Low lying flood plains are at risk of flooding because they do not have enough gradient to move the water on quick enough. This risk increases when the soils have a high clay content.
  • Upland areas are more likely to experience rain due to relief rainfall. This increases the likelihood of high levels of precipitation and therefore surface run-off.

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How can relief increase flood risk?
How does building a new housing estate on the floodplain increase the risk of flooding?
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Building a new housing estate on the floodplain increases the risk of flooding because the surface becomes impermeable due to the construction of houses, tarmac roads and concrete pavements. Surface run-off increases leading to a rapid increase in a river’s discharge.

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How does building a new housing estate on the floodplain increase the risk of flooding?
How does a change from pastoral to arable farming increase the risk of flooding?
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A change from pastoral to arable farming increases the risk of flooding because once crops have been harvested the soil is sometimes left bare in the winter. This reduces interception because there is no vegetation.

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How does a change from pastoral to arable farming increase the risk of flooding?
How can geology increase flood risk?
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Geology can increase the risk of flooding when:

  • The upland bedrock is impermeable, such as slate, which means there is more surface run-off
  • Soil in low lying areas is made up of clay. Because it is so compact it is difficult for infiltration to occur.
  • Areas of permeable rock, such as limestone, become inundated with water leading to increased surface run-off

Find out more about human and physical causes of flooding.

How can geology increase flood risk?




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